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National Center on Secondary Education and Transition: Creating opportunities for youth with disabilities to achieve successful futures.

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Deshler, D. D., Schumaker, J. B., Lenz, B. K., Bulgren, J. A., Hock, M. F., Knight, J, & Ehren, B. J. (2001). Ensuring content-area learning by secondary students with learning disabilities (PDF). Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 16(2), 96-108. Retrieved from

This article describes instructional methods and materials that have been developed and validated for use with secondary students with learning disabilities. These methods are intended to help students succeed in content-area reading. Earlier literature is reviewed concerning the problems students face as they reach the upper grades and are expected to read and understand increasingly difficult content-area text. The article discusses the use of validated interventions, service-delivery systems, and professional development programs to enhance student success.

Vaughn, S., Gersten, R., & Chard, D. J. (2000). The underlying message in LD intervention research: Findings from research syntheses. Exceptional Children, 67(1), 99-114.

This study considered the findings of research syntheses concerning the effectiveness of interventions with students with learning disabilities. The various syntheses covered many areas of instruction. Several effective interventions are described, and three principles of instruction are identified as key for students with learning disabilities. These include control of task difficulty, instruction in small interactive groups of six or fewer, and directed response questioning that encourages students to “think out loud.”

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