March 2002 • Vol. 1, Issue 1
By Megan Jones
The completion of a post-secondary degree has been linked to higher employment rates and higher income in the general population. At the same time, individuals with disabilities are less than half as likely to obtain a post-secondary degree and thus are less likely to be employed or to have a similar income as are individuals without disabilities. One reason for these differences is that the support that youth with disabilities receive in secondary and post-secondary school does not reach far enough toward ensuring that youth with disabilities have the same opportunity to enter, complete, and benefit from post-secondary education as do youth without disabilities.
Alice is 18 years old and is in the middle of her first semester at University. She is legally blind. In high school, Alice was mainstreamed with support from a special resource teacher. The resource teacher provided her with all of her textbooks on tape. She also took all of her exams in the resource room. The teachers in Alice’s classes always assigned her to a seat in the front of the classroom, and when she could not see the blackboard they allowed her to stand in front of the board and copy off information. There was also a specialist teacher for the blind who came to visit Alice once a week and taught her things like how to ride the bus from her home to her school. Often the teacher would accompany her to the lunchroom and help her find classmates to sit with. Once a year Alice’s mother came in to school and met with the principal, the resource teacher, and the specialist teacher (her IEP team). Alice is very bright, so her IEP team decided she should apply to University.
During the first few weeks of classes at University, Alice meets with a counselor who asks her for documentation of her disability and has her fill out a form that asks for the kinds of accommodations she will need. After a frantic call to Mom to fax over a letter from her doctor stating she is legally blind, Alice writes on the form that she thinks she might need her textbooks on tape.
Alice is having a hard time keeping up in her classes. She missed the first two lectures in history because she couldn’t find the classroom. She has all of her textbooks, but when she called the National Library Service for the Blind they only had one of them in stock and she figured that she couldn’t ask the disabled services office for help because they had said that they needed the books two months in advance.
When Alice gets a “D” on three of her midterm exams, her mother convinces her to go back to the disabled student services office for help. Alice does so. After talking with a counselor and planning how to ask for accommodations, she feels much better, but the next day in her Algebra class she is too embarrassed to stand up in front of the class and ask about a notetaker and a reader. The next exam turns out to be a “pop quiz,” and Alice asks the professor about getting the extra time the counselor had told her she was entitled to. The professor tells her that having double-time would give her an unfair advantage over the other students.
At the end of the semester, Alice has three “Ds” and one “C.” She is also very lonely, and spends all of her time sitting alone in her dorm room. She is seriously thinking of leaving University and moving back in with her parents.
An “accommodated” educational experience focuses on meeting legal mandates such as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). These legal mandates represent minimum standards for accommodating individuals with disabilities in educational settings. A “quality accommodated” educational experience, on the other hand, focuses not only on meeting legal mandates, but also on using best practices to support the learning experience of all students, including those with disabilities. The table above gives several examples of an “accommodation” versus a “quality accommodation.”
The reality is that many youth with disabilities are not adequately prepared to meet the entrance requirements and academic rigor of post-secondary institutions. Nor are they, like Alice, necessarily prepared for their changing role in the provision of disability-related supports. At the post-secondary level, a focus on meeting minimum accommodation standards rather than upon the provision of quality supports presents additional barriers for students with disabilities.
Secondary School Challenges
A Comparison of Minimum and Quality Accommodations
|Secondary school student has been invited to participate in Individualized Education Plan (IEP) meeting.||Student is invited and encouraged to participate in IEP meeting and then does.|
|General academic standards are set for all secondary students in the state.||High standards for both academics and career preparation are set for all secondary students in the state.|
|The student’s educational goals are set to achieve outcomes within the current environment.||The student’s goals focus upon outcomes to be achieved in both the current and future environments.|
|Secondary school student (via parents) is regularly informed of student progress.||Self-determination skills are infused into the secondary education curricula and self-determination is actively encouraged in parent/school interactions.|
|A Statement of Needed Transition Services is included in the student’s IEP.||The preparing environment (i.e. secondary school) is gradually molded to fit the receiving environment (i.e. post-secondary school).|
|The post-secondary education student must initiate support provision.||Students with disabilities and faculty members are given comprehensive information about, and encouraged to explore, various support options.|
|In post-secondary school, diverse teaching materials are faculty-specific and require the student to personally advocate for accommodations.||Post-secondary faculty increase their capacity to teach diverse learners, including students with disabilities.|
Students, Parents, Administrators, and Instructors can —
NCSET Post-School Outcomes Network, Center on Disability Studies
University of Hawai’i, Manoa
1776 University Avenue, UA 4-6
Honolulu, HI 96822
Tel: 808.956.5688; Fax: 808.956.7878
Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking, and Technology (DO-IT)
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195-5670
Tel/TTY: 206.685.DOIT (3648); Fax: 206.221.4171
The Ohio State University Partnership Grant: Improving the Quality of Higher Education for Students with Disabilities
The Nisonger Center
257 McCampbell Hall
1581 Dodd Dr.
The Ohio State University Campus
Columbus, OH 43210
Tel: 614.292.9920; Fax: 614.292.3727
Margo Izzo, Co-Project Director (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Optimizing the Learning Environment for Students with Disabilities — A Faculty/Staff Guide
Disability Support Services
51 Mannakee Street
Rockville, MD 20850.
Tel: 301.279.5058; Fax: 301.279.5097;
The George Washington University
HEATH Resource Center
2121 K Street, NW, Suite 220
Washington, DC 20037
Tel: 202.973.0904 or 800.544.3284; Fax: 202.973.0908
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